I would like to use the population estimates service, but don't know exactly how it works. I installed uDig with a WPS plugin, but I wonder which URL I have to use to connect to the sedac website.

It depends on the type of access you are trying to make.

For a WPS request, here is the get capabilities request URL: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/wps/WebProcessingService?Request=GetCapabilities&Service=WPS

For further information about the model/feature attributes, see:  http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/mapservices/arcgis/server/proxyoutput/sedac_GPW/PopStatsFeatures.htm

In addition, you could also make a REST – JSON call with: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/mapservices/arcgis/rest/services/sedac/GPW/GPServer?f=pjson

Or a SOAP WSDL call with: http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/mapservices/arcgis/services/sedac/GPW/GPServer?wsdl

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