Farmers’ adaptation that does not imply policy changes is included in the yield estimates. The capacity to adapt to changes in climate by low income farmers is not included explicitly in the model. This assumption does not mean that the average results are not representative of the countries, since the contribution to national production of the marginal farmers is very small. But this assumption means that the yield damage in the case of marginal farmers is not represented in the average results and it is much larger. The methodology of the study was not developed to analyse poverty or social vulnerability.